Q. What is the ruling if water gets in the throat unintentionally while swimming in the state of fasting?
If he sure I am a good swimmer!
Ans. Then, If water will get to the swimmer's throat while swimming then his fast (roza) will be broken.
Because he knew I am a good swimmer but mistakenly water has got to his throat while swimming.
Doing something by forgotten or mistakenly is a two different acts.
Things that should not be done while fasting if someone does those acts by forgetting the fasting then the fast does not break because forgetting it does not means that he wants to do that.
If someone has done against the ruling of fasting by mistake then the fast does break because he remembers his fasting but by mistake, he did that act against the rule, therefore, his fast will break.
So if a swimmer is careful to avoid getting water into his throat Even then, the water gets to his throat then his fast will break but he will not be punished for it because he did this by mistake.
Gargling while performing Wudu or Ghusl during fasting should not be done because if mistakenly water gets into the throat then the fast will broken so need to be careful about doing that.
When anyone knew that water can reach his throat while swimming then he should not do this activity because it will haram to do that and also punishable act.
Kaffara (expiation) provides an opportunity to recompense for individuals who deliberately miss or break a fast during Ramadan without a valid reason. In the Hanafi school, if a person misses a day of fasting unnecessarily, he or she should either fast for 60 consecutive days or feed 60 poor people.
To atone for the intentionally missed/invalidated fast, a person must fast continuously for 60 days. If they are unable to do that, they should feed 60 poor people. Kaffara is due for each individual fast which has been intentionally missed/ invalidated.
In the swimming or gargling scenario, because water gets into the throat by mistake therefore there is no atonement.
Allaah says in the verses on fasting (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah [i.e. to say Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar: Allaah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him”
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “This religion is easy, and whoever overburdens himself in the religious matter will not be able to continue in that way.” And Allaah knows best. End quote.
He also said:
There is nothing wrong with a fasting person diving into water or swimming in it because that is not among the things that break the fast. The basic principle is that things are permissible unless there is evidence to show that they are makrooh or haraam. There is no evidence that swimming is makrooh or haraam, rather some the scholars regarded it as makrooh lest anything enter the swimmer’s throat without him realizing it. End quote.
Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 19/284, 285